Latin American and Latino Studies

2017-18 General Catalog

32 Merrill College
(831) 459-4284

Faculty | Course Descriptions

Program Description

The Latin American and Latino Studies (LALS) Department prepares students for bilingual and multicultural participation in a rapidly changing and globalized world. As currently established at UCSC, this inherently interdisciplinary field draws from sociology, history, anthropology, political science, media studies, communications, cultural studies, ethnic studies economics, environmental studies, and literature. LALS investigates the historical, economic, social, and cultural processes that are shaping and transforming the Americas region. By viewing societies as interrelated—specifically U.S. Latino/a communities and Latin American/Caribbean communities—LALS analyzes how local, regional, global, and transnational dimensions affect histories, politics, and cultures.

LALS courses support four department areas of emphasis: (1) transnationalisms, migrations, and displacement; (2) intersectionality, identities, and inequalities; (3) collective action, social movements, and social change; and (4) culture, power, and knowledge.

  1. Transnationalisms, Migrations, and Displacement. This area of emphasis focuses on the analytical concepts of transnationalisms, migrations, and displacement. Transnationalisms is a concept that refers to the myriad cross-border cultural, social, economic, and political flows that link Latin American and Latina/o communities across the Américas. Migrations capture the south-north, south-south, international and intranational mobility of peoples, communities, cultures, and ideas. Displacement reminds us that population movements are often forced, and linked to processes of social, economic, cultural, legal, and/or political coercion. Informed by a set of human rights standards that have been constitutive in the formation of Latin American and Latina/o communities—freedom of movement on the one hand, and the right to not migrate on the other—courses in this area of emphasis will help students understand the dynamic social cartographies of the Américas and beyond.

  2. Intersectionality, Identities, and Inequalities. As an analytic and theory informed by feminist and ethnic studies scholarship, intersectionality is the primary conceptual and theoretical framework in this area of emphasis. Research foregrounding the Américas region underscores how structural inequalities at multiple levels (local, national, regional, transnational, and global) shape the identities and experiences of groups and individuals. Of particular interest in this area are the ways in which various regimes, from colonial to post-neoliberal, have informed identities and inequalities, and how their subjects—namely, slaves, workers, migrants, women, youth, and racialized groups (to list just a handful)—have negotiated and contested these interlocking systems. Courses in this area seek to illuminate the inter-connected dimensions of identity categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, nationality, socio-economic status, gender, sexuality, ability, age) as well as the mutually related structures of inequalities that rely upon and reproduce these intersecting categories.

  3. Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change. This area of emphasis explores how communities come together to influence political, cultural, economic, and social structures and institutions. It draws attention to the significance of grassroots activism, political/civic engagement, and social change projects at local, national, regional, and international levels, as well as the transnational dynamics that link diverse social movements across the Américas. The development and deployment of politicized collective identities, the structural conditions that enable and constrain social movement mobilization, the cultural and political influences on social movements’ strategic choices, and the ways that governments and other institutional actors respond to movements and their demands are illuminated by transnational and comparative approaches. Further, by covering a wide variety of contemporary and historical struggles—feminist, labor, indigenous, youth, immigrant rights, land reform, ecological, decolonial, human rights, revolutionary movements, and many others—courses in this area of emphasis highlight the impetus for social change in the region.

  4. Culture, Power, and Knowledge. This area of emphasis focuses on the analysis of contested symbols, meanings, aesthetics, and representations. It interrogates the relationship between asymmetries of power, definitions of culture, markers of difference, and the construction of knowledge claims. “Culture, Power, and Knowledge” places emphasis on how these key words and ideas are historically located, produced, mediated, contested, and made accessible through various technologies and to multiple publics. It examines the role of power in shaping the construction, circulation, and commercialization of various cultural expressions, media images, and forms of knowledge; and how these constitute viable political subjectivities and social imaginaries. Courses in this area focus on the politics of representation and the tensions and re-articulations of cultural work and claims to authenticity, while connecting theoretical approaches to broader social, political, historical, and contemporary transformations in the Américas.

In addition to academic knowledge, LALS supports and encourages students to pursue opportunities to acquire practical, real-world skills. Through prospective internships and field-study experiences, students can acquire useful, pre-professional skills in key areas, such as community development/advocacy, public policy, education, legal services, and research/writing.

Graduates of the LALS major have forged careers in a wide variety of fields, including teaching, community organizing, community and government service, journalism and the media, environmental science, global economics, health care, legal services, library science, music, publishing, and research. Many have gone on to pursue advanced degrees in the U.S. or abroad in fields such as anthropology, bilingual education, media, communications, cultural studies, ecology, economics, geography, history, law, literature, educational counseling, public health, and sociology.

Program Learning Objectives

We expect that all graduating LALS seniors will have gained proficiency or competency in the following five areas: critical thinking, research methods, communication, language, and lifelong learning skills.

1. Critical Thinking.  Ability to analyze from a transnational/transborder/translocal perspective—to see the interconnections between Latin American and Latino issues, people, ideas, problems and solutions. This includes key skills, such as understanding sources, comparing arguments, analysis, and historical perspective.

2. Research Methods. Working knowledge of social scientific and/or humanistic approaches to LALS relevant topics. This includes key skills, such as acquiring quantitative skills, gathering or obtaining research data, finding/using primary sources, qualitative research, other research methods.

3. Communication. Key communication skills, including written, oral presentation, and digital, including an understanding of media sources and ability to apply media literacy to cross-cultural analysis.

4. Language. Fluency in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese.

5. Lifelong Learning Skills. Acquisition of practical hands-on skills in community engagement, cross-cultural fluency, familiarity with Latin America, and familiarity with Latino experience acquired through experiential learning working with community and civic organizations.

Declaration of the Major

Students need to complete LALS 1, Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies, and/or one additional lower-division Latin American and Latino Studies course prior to declaring the major. A junior transfer student may petition the department to satisfy the lower-division requirements with equivalent courses from a qualified institution. These courses must appear on the UCSC Transfer Credit Summary. See the LALS department for more information.

Requirements of the Major

A minimum of 11 courses is required for the major.

Two Lower-Division LALS Courses

All students are required to take LALS 1, Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies, and one additional lower-division Latin American and Latino studies course. These courses are normally taken during the student’s first year. In addition, all majors must complete 9 upper-division courses, including three required core courses, (no substitutions).

Three Upper-Division Core Courses

100 Concepts and Theories in Latin American and Latina/o Studies

100A Social Science Analytics

100B Cultural Theory in the Americas

Six Upper-Division Courses

These courses must fulfill the following requirements:

  • Three LALS courses from one area of emphasis (described below)

  • Two additional LALS upper-division courses

  • One LALS course satisfying the senior comprehensive requirement (described below)

  • Two of these upper-division courses must be taken in Spanish or Portuguese*

The four areas of emphasis for upper-division courses are:

  • Transnationalisms, Migrations, and Displacement

  • Intersectionality, Identities, and Inequalities

  • Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change

  • Culture, Power, and Knowledge

*In addition to courses offered at UCSC, students may fulfill the language requirement through an appropriate course taken while participating in a study abroad program.

Senior Comprehensive Requirement

Every major must complete a senior exit requirement in order to graduate. The preparation and completion of this requirement is structured into the senior year.

One upper-division course chosen from the following four options.

  1. Passing a Latin American and Latino Studies senior seminar (194 series). In these courses, students must write at least 30 pages cumulatively during the quarter. The final paper is based on independent scholarly research, demonstrates advanced skills in critical analysis, and has undergone revisions. Senior standing and completion of LALS 100A and 100B are required before taking a LALS 194 course for fulfillment of the senior exit requirement.

  2. An expanded research paper, a minimum of 20 pages in length. This paper often builds on related course work and requires approval from the relevant faculty adviser before the end of the winter quarter of the senior year. Students must be enrolled in an independent study tutorial to complete this paper.

  3. A senior thesis, generally between 40–60 pages, based on two or more quarters of sustained independent research under the supervision of the faculty adviser while enrolled in an independent study (done by petition to LALS, and with the approval of the faculty adviser). If the thesis option is selected by a combined major, it should be planned in consultation with an adviser from each department, completed under the supervision of a faculty member from either department, and read and approved by both advisers; one adviser is sufficient if this faculty member is affiliated with both departments. This option is recommended for those students seeking to enter graduate school.

  4. A senior project, which can be either a creative project or a community-action project. Creative projects include website design, video, performance, slide show, photo exhibit, or other media work. A short written analysis of the student’s experience in conducting the project is required. Community-action projects often involve sustained research and/or activity conducted in a community organization or public interest group, usually stemming from an internship. The required, short, written analysis has to be 10 pages minimum.

Note: Some combined majors have fewer options for exit requirements (see below).

Language Requirements

All Latin American and Latino studies majors are expected to learn to speak, read, and write Spanish or Portuguese and to make use of these skills on a regular basis in their upper-division academic work.

Majors must take at least two upper-division courses taught in Spanish or Portuguese.* Before taking upper-division coursework taught in the language, students must demonstrate proficiency in Spanish equivalent to the completion of Spanish 6 or Spanish for Heritage Speakers 6. Students who wish to pursue Portuguese may take the Portuguese 1A/1B or 60A/60B series.

Students who have achieved fluency in Spanish or Portuguese through life experience may be exempt from this recommended preparatory coursework after demonstration of their proficiency. In addition to Latin American and Latino studies and affiliated department course offerings, the required two upper-division courses taught in Spanish or Portuguese* may be fulfilled through study abroad with approval by the LALS Department. Students may also pursue internship or field study opportunities to satisfy one of the two required upper-division courses taught in Spanish or Portuguese; however, at least one of the two courses must be fulfilled in a classroom setting.

*In addition to courses offered at UCSC, students may fulfill the language requirement through an appropriate course taken while participating in a study abroad program.

Disciplinary Communication (DC) Requirement

Students of every major must satisfy that major's upper-division Disciplinary Communication (DC) requirement. The DC requirement in Latin American and Latino studies and the combined majors with politics, and sociology are met by completing courses 100A and 100B.

Course Substitutions and Transfer Credits

A maximum of two courses are allowed for substitution of LALS major requirements. However, there are no substitutions allowed for LALS 01, 100, 100A and 100B. Courses from other institutions must appear in the student record on the UCSC Transfer Credit Summary. Students must consult with the student adviser regarding requests for course substitutions.

Field-Study and Internship Opportunities

All majors are encouraged to undertake either a field study in Latin America, the Caribbean, a Latino/a community in the U.S., or formal academic study abroad through the Education Abroad Program (EAP). These paths are the best ways to improve language skills, to explore the nature and direction of specific academic and career interests in relation to Latin American and Latino studies, and to deepen cross-cultural understanding and relationships.

Field studies are independent, community-based study projects for academic credit, done under faculty sponsorship and arranged on an individual basis. Local opportunities for internships and field study in Latino/a communities on California’s Central Coast are numerous. Credit for up to three upper-division courses may be applied toward the major from field study; however, course credit from field study and study abroad combined may not exceed three upper-division courses. Students should check the Latin American and Latino Studies Department website for further information regarding the field-study process and course credit. A listing of local field-study programs and petition forms are available at the Latin American and Latino Studies Department office, 32 Merrill.

Study Abroad

Students may study abroad through the University of California Education Abroad Program (UCEAP), through UC Summer and Quarter Abroad Programs, or through independent programs. UCEAP offers opportunities for students to study in Buenos Aires, Argentina; Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Madrid, Córdoba, Granada, and Barcelona in Spain. In addition to language and culture and university immersion programs, UCEAP also offers a Field Research Program in Mexico, which is an experiential program geared toward juniors and seniors who want to explore the “real” Mexico outside the classroom and at the same time receive undergraduate research training. The program has research sites in states such as Chiapas, Yucatán, Oaxaca, and Michoacán (final site choice depends on the research topic). There is also a Leadership in Social Justice and Public Policy, Mexico City and Sacramento program. On this amazing program students study abroad in the capital of Mexico and then add a related internship in Sacramento to build the skills and confidence to take on any future professional challenge. Application deadlines are generally about one year in advance of the program, so students should visit Global Engagement early to plan for study abroad and to begin the application process. The department will consider by petition the approval of courses taken abroad, whether through UCEAP or through independent programs, that cover topics appropriate to the LALS curriculum for upper-division credit toward the major. All credit for UCEAP classes is fully incorporated into students’ UCSC transcripts; students receive transfer credit for independent study abroad programs. Financial aid applies to all UCEAP programs and UC Summer and Quarter Abroad Programs and Independence Programs, which take into account airfare and living costs in addition to tuition and fees. Before departure, students should present an academic plan for courses abroad to the department adviser for review. Credit for up to three UCEAP courses can be applied toward the major. (A maximum of three courses of field study and UCEAP combined can be applied toward the major requirements.)

Latin American and Latino Studies Major Planners

The following are two recommended academic plans for undertaking basic preparation for the Latin American and Latino studies major. Plan One is a guideline for students who commit to the major early in their academic career. Plan Two is for transfer students.

Plan One—Frosh










LALS lower-division

LALS lower-division


SPAN 4 or SPHS 4

SPAN 5 or SPHS 5

SPAN 6 or SPHS 6

LALS 100




LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-
division course


LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS 194 (Senior-
Exit Requirement)

Plan Two—Junior Transfers






SPAN 4 or SPHS 4

SPAN 5 or SPHS 5

SPAN 6 or SPHS 6

LALS 100




LALS lower-division

LALS upper-
division course


LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS upper-division course

LALS 194 (Senior-
Exit Requirement)

Combined Majors

The combined major options, requiring fewer courses than a double major, are established with the politics and sociology departments.

Latin American and Latino Studies/Politics

Students are required to take a total of 12 courses and to satisfy a senior comprehensive requirement. For the combined major in Latin American and Latino studies/politics, students complete two lower-division course requirements, LALS 1 and one course from Politics 1-79. Transfer students may petition to substitute LALS 1 or one course from Politics 1-79 with appropriate coursework from another institution. The 10 upper-division courses include three core course from LALS (LALS 100, 100A and 100B), one from Politics (140C) and six upper-division electives, four from politics (three of which must be politics core courses from the 105, 120, 140, and 160 series) and two from LALS (one must be taught in Spanish or Portuguese*).

Latin American and Latino Studies/Sociology

Students are required to take a total of 12 courses and to satisfy a senior comprehensive requirement. There are three lower-division course requirements, two from the Sociology Department chosen from Sociology 1, Introduction to Sociology; Sociology 10, Issues and Problems in American Society; or Sociology 15, World Society, or their equivalents, and one from Latin American and Latino Studies Department. The lower-division LALS course must be LALS 1; transfer students may petition to replace the LALS 1 with an appropriate course from another institution. Upper-division requirements include five core courses: LALS 100, 100A, 100B; Sociology 105A, and 105B; and four additional elective courses, two from sociology and two from Latin American and Latino studies. At least one of the Latin American and Latino studies upper-division courses must be taught in Spanish or Portuguese.* Up to three relevant courses taken through study abroad programs from which credits are transferable to UCSC may be credited toward the major, when the content is deemed appropriate by the faculty advisers of both Sociology and Latin American and Latino studies. Students can satisfy the comprehensive requirement in one of two ways: (1) writing a senior thesis, (2) passing an appropriate LALS Senior Seminar (194 series). If the thesis option is selected, it should be planned in consultation with an adviser from each department, completed under the supervision of a faculty member from either department, and read and approved by both advisers. See Sociology program statement on admission to the LALS/Sociology major.

** In addition to courses offered at UCSC, students may fulfill the language requirement through an appropriate course taken while participating in a study abroad program.

Honors in the Major

The LALS faculty considers awarding honors in the major based on overall student academic performance in courses that count towards the major. To receive the strongest consideration for honors in the major the following grade point average (GPA) criteria must be met: highest honors, 4.0; honors, 3.7. Students with a 3.5–3.7 GPA in the major will also be considered, and a decision is made based on their grades in core courses and improvement over time. For combined majors, student work must be considered to be honors-level in both departments; the LALS faculty cannot award honors in the major unless the other department also confers honors.

LALS also awards honors for the thesis, creative or community action projects, or student taught seminars, by the recommendation of the faculty adviser. Note that a thesis and a creative/community project are the only senior exit requirement options that qualify for this distinct honors designation. Expanded papers and senior seminars do not qualify for a separate honors designation, but students who choose these options may still qualify for honors in the major.

Minor Requirements

The minor in Latin American and Latino studies consists of seven courses, including two LALS lower-division courses and five upper-division courses (including LALS 100 or LALS 100A or 100B and any other four upper-division courses that count towards the major). Knowledge of Spanish and/or Portuguese is highly recommended, but not required for the minor.

Graduate Studies

The Ph.D. program in Latin American and Latino Studies at UCSC offers an innovative transnational and interdisciplinary approach to the study of the peoples, cultures, societies and institutions of the Americas.  The program is designed to educate students in this new field of study and train them to develop the conceptual and analytical skills necessary for understanding the dynamics of hemispheric change. This is the first doctoral program in Latin American and Latino Studies. 

In preparing students for research and teaching at the university level, the department offers four thematic clusters in the emerging field of Latin American and Latino Studies: 1) transnational migrations within the Americas; 2) social inequalities; 3) cultural politics and cultural flows; and 4) collective action and social movements. Doctoral students specialize in one of these four substantive themes, as well as a focus area of their own design.

  1. Transnationalisms, Migrations, and Displacement. While transnational migrations are the subject of research in multiple disciplines, this program analyzes these transformative processes through an interdisciplinary lens.  A transnational approach examines links between regions in the Americas, analyzing the social and historical foundations of economic dynamics such as remittances from the United States or the dollarization of Latin American countries. A transnational approach to the study of migratory processes explores the dynamics of bi-national communities, bilingualism and multilingualism, immigrant integration into host societies, and North-South exchanges of ideas and cultures.

  2. Intersectionality, Identities, and Inequalities.  This program’s research in the Americas foregrounds the study of transnational social inequalities formed by power relations based on race, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship, class, territory, gender and/or sexuality. These social hierarchies are analyzed as institutions, historical processes, discourses, or symbols with multiple meanings, and are examined in terms of how they have been mobilized to build, transform, or challenge identities, communities, and social movements in local, national, and global contexts over time.

  3. Cultural, Power, and Knowledge. Another distinctive area of inquiry in the Americas is the study of cultural politics and cultural flows that shape everyday life, institutions, social identities, discourses, meanings, and cultural forms and practices, in global, regional, and local contexts in an increasingly interconnected and integrated world.  The transnational analysis of culture focuses on the ways in which cultural forces and cross-cultural communication and media are contributing to the formation of new transnational imaginaries, as well as how these cultural processes are transforming and redefining national and local cultures.

  4. Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change.  This area of research addresses collective action and social movements at local, national and international levels viewed through transnational lenses.  As migrants engage in public life, both in their communities of residence and in their communities of origin, they construct diverse practices of political participation, including "civic binationality.”  These processes are crucial for understanding the largest wave of immigration in a century, including how migrants relate to US society.

The doctoral program provides rigorous training in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of transnational processes that link the Americas.  The program educates doctoral students in the theories and research methods based in disciplines of the social sciences and the humanities.

The deadline for applications to the doctoral program is December 15 in the preceding year. The program only accepts students for admission in fall quarter.

Coursework Requirements

The program requires a total of 12 courses with LALS Graduate Program Affiliated Faculty, including the definition of two areas of concentration. Of the required courses, up to three may be independent studies with LALS faculty. Of the 12 required courses, students may take up to five  graduate courses offered in other departments and with approval from the graduate director.

Before advancement to candidacy, a full-time course load is two or three courses at the graduate level. The following are the course requirements:

LALS 200 Bridging Latin American and Latino Studies

LALS 200A Politics and Society

LALS 200B Culture and Society

LALS 201 Research in Praxis

Two methodology courses (taught in LALS or in a disciplinary department)

Six additional 5-credit courses leading to the definition of two areas of concentration, taken in consultation with the faculty adviser.

If students enroll in a graduate summer language course, the course will not count as part of the six additional required courses.

If a student enters with a master’s degree from another university, they may petition to the graduate director to apply some of their graduate coursework toward the LALS graduate program requirements.

Language Requirement

The program requires significant reading, writing and speaking abilities in both English and Spanish.

As per Graduate Division requirements, the secondary language requirement must be satisfied by the end of the third year, prior to Advancing to Candidacy. The secondary language requirement  may be fulfilled by:

1. Departmental sit-down, Spanish-to-English translation examination

2. UCSC graduate courses in Spanish/Portuguese

a. Passing a 5-credit graduate seminar in LALS or other UCSC department, offered in secondary language during the academic year

b. Passing a UCSC Literature Department summer research language course

3. Summer immersion program, e.g. Berkeley, Cornell, or abroad. The program must have a scholarly and rigorous focus, the student must receive advance approval
from faculty adviser, and the student must submit to the graduate adviser a letter from the program attesting to their completion of the program and their satisfactory performance in the secondary language. We urge students who choose this option to organize their language training early in their graduate career.

4. Graduating from a university with primary instruction in Spanish/Portuguese.

Students will be required to include information regarding their plans for satisfying the secondary language requirement in their End-of-Year statements in the first and second years.

Students are required to demonstrate, by one of the methods listed above, their proficiency in a language other than English before the completion of the qualifying examination.

The Qualifying Examination Process

Doctoral students will be required to submit two qualifying essays, and a qualifying examination, as described below. A qualifying examination committee, composed of four faculty members, will approve both the scope of the field statements constituting the qualifying essays and the final written products, and conduct the oral examination. This committee must include at least two LALS faculty members (i.e. LALS core faculty and LALS Graduate Program Affiliates), and follow graduate division guidelines. The qualifying examination committee must be approved in advance by the Graduate Division. Students should take their examinations by spring of the third year. The qualifying-examination process is discussed in detail in a meeting with the graduate program coordinator and graduate director as each graduate student cohort finishes the fall quarter of their second year.

  1. Qualifying Essays.  Students are required to complete two qualifying essays. The qualifying essay topics should address broad non-overlapping fields and review the literatures related to the proposed dissertation questions. Students should consult with their qualifying examination committee early in the process, regarding the appropriate scope and content of their essays.

    One of the qualifying essays must focus on one of the department’s four themes: transnational migrations and social displacement; intersectionality, identities and inequalities; collective action, social movements and social change; and culture, power, and knowledge. The qualifying essay should demonstrate command of the methodology relevant to the student’s specialized research interests (e.g., ethnographic field methods, textual analysis, archival research methods, statistics, media analysis, and/or comparative methods) and include relevant texts in the second language. The committee chair must approve these essays at least one month prior to the oral examination.

    In addition, the essays must be accompanied by two proposed course syllabi for potential undergraduate courses.

  2. Qualifying Examination.  An oral examination will follow the approval of the qualifying essays.

    After successfully completing the qualifying examination, students are expected to assemble a dissertation committee chaired by a LALS principal faculty member chosen from the LALS core or LALS graduate program affiliate faculty lists.

    Coursework and the qualifying process should be completed by the end of the third year. Students may petition for a non-terminal Master’s degree after advancing to candidacy.


Students will be expected to complete the dissertation prospectus and secure approval from the dissertation committee by the last day of the quarter after the qualifying examination. In the prospectus, students should clearly articulate the logic of an interdisciplinary, transnational approach, as well as the methodologies to be used for addressing the research questions.

The dissertation must demonstrate in-depth research, make a significant and original scholarly contribution, and include material worthy of publication.

Designated Emphasis in Latin American and Latino studies

Graduate students may work toward a doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree that notes a designated emphasis in Latin American and Latino studies on the graduation documents. Students wishing to pursue this option should consult with the adviser of their respective Ph.D. programs and are encouraged to apply in the first or second year of graduate study. The application and an annually updated list of regularly offered, approved graduate courses are available here.

The following are required for the designated emphasis:

Committee Composition. The student must have a designated graduate adviser from among the Latin American and Latino studies core, participating, or affiliated faculty. This adviser will be in addition to the graduate adviser from the student’s home department. The Latin American and Latino studies adviser must serve on the student’s qualifying examination committee and/or on the student’s dissertation committee.

Course requirements. The student must take five graduate courses in Latin American and Latino studies, including the required LALS 200 and LALS 297. The remainder can be selected from appropriate graduate offerings of any UCSC department, as long as they are taught by core, participating, or affiliated Latin American and Latino studies faculty.

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Revised: 09/01/17