# Mathematics

2016-17 General Catalog

4111 McHenry

(831) 459-2969

http://www.math.ucsc.edu

## Lower-Division Courses

**2.** **College Algebra for Calculus.** **F**

Operations on real numbers, complex numbers, polynomials, and rational expressions; exponents and radicals; solving linear and quadratic equations and inequalities; functions, algebra of functions, graphs; conic sections; mathematical models; sequences and series. Prerequisite(s): mathematics placement (MP) score of 100 or higher. *The Staff*

**2S.** **College Algebra for Calculus** **(2 credits).** *****

This two-credit, stretch course offers students two quarters to master material covered in course 2: operations on real numbers, complex numbers, polynomials, and rational expressions; exponents and radicals; solving linear and quadratic equations and inequalities; functions, algebra of functions, graphs; conic sections; mathematical models; sequences and series. After successful completion of this course in the first quarter, students enroll in course 2 the following quarter to complete the sequence and earn an additional 5 credits. Prerequisite(s): mathematics placement (MP) score of 100 or higher. *N. Bhattacharya,* *The Staff*

**2T.** **Preparatory Math: Tutorial** **(2 credits).** **F,W**

Independent study of algebra and modern mathematics using adaptive learning software. Instruction emphasizes clear mathematical communication and reasoning when working with sets, equations, functions, and graphs. Drop in labs, online forums, and readings provide opportunities for further learning and exploration. Prerequisite(s): mathematics placement (MP) score of 100 or higher. May be repeated for credit. *D. Lewis*

**3.** **Precalculus.** **F,W,S**

Inverse functions and graphs; exponential and logarithmic functions, their graphs, and use in mathematical models of the real world; rates of change; trigonometry, trigonometric functions, and their graphs; and geometric series. Students cannot receive credit for both course 3 and Applied Mathematics and Statistics 3. Applied Mathematics and Statistics 3 can substitute for course 3. Prerequisite(s): course 2 or mathematics placement (MP) score of 200 or higher. (General Education Code(s): MF, Q.) *The Staff*

**4.** **Mathematics of Choice and Argument.** *****

Techniques of analyzing and creating quantitative arguments. Application of probability theory to questions in justice, medicine, and economics. Analysis and avoidance of statistical bias. Understanding the application and limitations of quantitative techniques. Prerequisite(s): course 2, or mathematics placement (MP) score of 200 or higher, or AP Calculus AB examination score of 3 or higher. (General Education Code(s): SR, Q.) *The Staff*

**11A.** **Calculus with Applications.** **F,W,S**

A modern course stressing conceptual understanding, relevance, and problem solving. The derivative of polynomial, exponential, and trigonometric functions of a single variable is developed and applied to a wide range of problems involving graphing, approximation, and optimization. Students cannot receive credit for both this course and course 19A or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 11A and 15A, or Economics 11A. Prerequisite(s): course 3 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 3; or mathematics placement (MP) score of 300 or higher; or AP Calculus AB exam score of 3 or higher. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**11B.** **Calculus with Applications.** **F,W,S**

Starting with the fundamental theorem of calculus and related techniques, the integral of functions of a single variable is developed and applied to problems in geometry, probability, physics, and differential equations. Polynomial approximations, Taylor series, and their applications conclude the course. Students cannot receive credit for this course and course 19B, or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 11B and 15B, or Economics 11B. Prerequisite(s): course 11A or 19A or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 15A or AP Calculus AB exam score of 4 or 5, or BC exam score of 3 or higher, or IB Mathematics Higher Level exam score of 5 or higher. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**19A.** **Calculus for Science, Engineering, and Mathematics.** **F,W,S**

The limit of a function, calculating limits, continuity, tangents, velocities, and other instantaneous rates of change. Derivatives, the chain rule, implicit differentiation, higher derivatives. Exponential functions, inverse functions, and their derivatives. The mean value theorem, monotonic functions, concavity, and points of inflection. Applied maximum and minimum problems. Students cannot receive credit for both this course and course 11A or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 11A and 15A,or Economics 11A. Prerequisite(s): course 3 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 3; or mathematics placement (MP) score of 400 or higher; or AP Calculus AB exam score of 3 or higher. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**19B.** **Calculus for Science, Engineering, and Mathematics.** **F,W,S**

The definite integral and the fundamental theorem of calculus. Areas, volumes. Integration by parts, trigonometric substitution, and partial fractions methods. Improper integrals. Sequences, series, absolute convergence and convergence tests. Power series, Taylor and Maclaurin series. Students cannot receive credit for both this course and course 11B, Applied Math and Statistics 11B and 15B, or Economics 11B. Prerequisite(s): course 19A or 20A or AP Calculus AB exam score of 4 or 5, or BC exam score of 3 or higher, or IB Mathematics Higher Level exam score of 5 of higher. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**20A.** **Honors Calculus.** **F**

Challenging course designed to approach single-variable calculus from the perspective of modern mathematics. Emphasis is on the evolution and historical development of core concepts underlying calculus and analysis. Prerequisite(s): mathematics placement (MP) score of 500 higher; or AP Calculus AB examination score of 4 or 5; or BC examination of 3 or higher; or IB Mathematics Higher Level examination score of 5 or higher. Enrollment limited to 60. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**20B.** **Honors Calculus.** **W**

Challenging course designed to approach single-variable calculus from the perspective of modern mathematics. Emphasis is on the evolution and historical development of core concepts underlying calculus and analysis. Prerequisite(s): course 20A. Enrollment limited to 60. (General Education Code(s): MF, IN, Q.) *The Staff*

**21.** **Linear Algebra.** **F,W,S**

Systems of linear equations matrices, determinants. Introduces abstract vector spaces, linear transformation, inner products, the geometry of Euclidean space, and eigenvalues. Students cannot receive credit for this course and Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 or 10A. Prerequisite(s): Mathematics 11A or 19A or 20A or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 11A or 15A. (General Education Code(s): MF, Q.) *The Staff*

**22.** **Introduction to Calculus of Several Variables.** **W**

Functions of several variables. Continuity and partial derivatives. The chain rule, gradient and directional derivative. Maxima and minima, including Lagrange multipliers. The double and triple integral and change of variables. Surface area and volumes. Applications from biology, chemistry, earth sciences, engineering, and physics. Students cannot receive credit for this course and course 23A. Prerequisite(s): course 11B or 19B or 20B or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 15B or AP calculus BC exam score of 4 or 5. (General Education Code(s): MF.) *The Staff*

**23A.** **Vector Calculus.** **F,W,S**

Vectors in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The inner and cross products. The derivative of functions from n-dimensional to m-dimensional Euclidean space is studied as a linear transformation having matrix representation. Paths in 3-dimensions, arc length, vector differential calculus, Taylor's theorem in several variables, extrema of real-valued functions, constrained extrema and Lagrange multipliers, the implicit function theorem, some applications. Students cannot receive credit for this course and course 22. (Formerly Multivariable Calculus.) Prerequisite(s): course 19B or 20B or AP calculus BC exam score of 4 or 5. (General Education Code(s): MF.) *The Staff*

**23B.** **Vector Calculus.** **F,W,S**

Double integral, changing the order of integration. Triple integrals, maps of the plane, change of variables theorem, improper double integrals. Path integrals, line integrals, parametrized surfaces, area of a surface, surface integrals. Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, conservative fields, Gauss' theorem. Applications to physics and differential equations, differential forms. (Formerly Multivariable Calculus.) Prerequisite(s): course 23A. (General Education Code(s): MF.) *The Staff*

**24.** **Ordinary Differential Equations.** **F**

First and second order ordinary differential equations, with emphasis on the linear case. Methods of integrating factors, undetermined coefficients, variation of parameters, power series, numerical computation. Students cannot receive credit for this course and Applied Mathematics and Statistics 20. Prerequisite(s): course 22 or 23A; course 21 is recommended as preparation. *The Staff*

**99.** **Tutorial.** **F,W,S**

*The Staff*

**99F.** **Tutorial** **(2 credits).** **F,W,S**

May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

## Upper-Division Courses

**100.** **Introduction to Proof and Problem Solving.** **F,W,S**

Students learn the basic concepts and ideas necessary for upper-division mathematics and techniques of mathematical proof. Introduction to sets, relations, elementary mathematical logic, proof by contradiction, mathematical induction, and counting arguments. Prerequisite(s): satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements and course 21 and course 11A or 19A or 20A. Enrollment limited to 80. (General Education Code(s): MF.) *The Staff*

**101.** **Mathematical Problem Solving.** **F**

Students learn the strategies, tactics, skills and tools that mathematicians use when faced with a novel (new) problem. These include generalization, specialization, the optimization, invariance, symmetry, Dirichlet's box principle among others in the context of solving problems from number theory, geometry, calculus, combinatorics, probability, algebra, analysis, and graph theory. (Formerly, course 30.) Prerequisite(s): courses 21 and 100. (General Education Code(s): PR-E.) *The Staff*

**103A.** **Complex Analysis.** **W,S**

Complex numbers, analytic and harmonic functions, complex integration, the Cauchy integral formula, Laurent series, singularities and residues, conformal mappings. (Formerly course 103.) Prerequisite(s): course 23B; and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**103B.** **Complex Analysis II** **(2 credits).** *****

Conformal mappings, the Riemann mapping theorem, Mobius transformations, Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms, applications, and other topics as time permits. Prerequisite(s): course 103A. *The Staff*

**105A.** **Real Analysis.** **F,W**

The basic concepts of one-variable calculus are treated rigorously. Set theory, the real number system, numerical sequences and series, continuity, differentiation. Prerequisite(s): course 22 or 23B and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**105B.** **Real Analysis.** **S**

Metric spaces, differentiation and integration of functions. The Riemann-Stieltjes integral. Sequences and series of functions. Prerequisite(s): course 105A. *The Staff*

**105C.** **Real Analysis.** *****

The Stone-Weierstrass theorem, Fourier series, differentiation and integration of functions of several variables. Prerequisite(s): course 105B. *The Staff*

**106.** **Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations.** **W**

Linear systems, exponentials of operators, existence and uniqueness, stability of equilibria, periodic attractors, and applications. (Formerly course 106A.) Prerequisite(s): courses 21 and 24 (preferred) or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and 20; and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**107.** **Partial Differential Equations.** **S**

Topics covered include first and second order linear partial differential equations, the heat equation, the wave equation, Laplace's equation, separation of variables, eigenvalue problems, Green's functions, Fourier series, special functions including Bessel and Legendre functions, distributions and transforms. Prerequisite(s): courses 21 and 24 (preferred) or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and 20; and either course 100 or Computer Science 101; course 106 is recommended as preparation. *The Staff*

**110.** **Introduction to Number Theory.** **F,W**

Prime numbers, unique factorization, congruences with applications (e.g., to magic squares). Rational and irrational numbers. Continued fractions. Introduction to Diophantine equations. An introduction to some of the ideas and outstanding problems of modern mathematics. Prerequisite(s): course 100 or Computer Science 101. (General Education Code(s): Q.) *The Staff*

**111A.** **Algebra.** **F,W**

Group theory including the Sylow theorem, the structure of abelian groups, and permutation groups. Prerequisite(s): course 21 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**111B.** **Algebra.** **S**

Introduction to rings and fields including polynomial rings, factorization, the classical geometric constructions, and Galois theory. Prerequisite(s): course 111A. *The Staff*

**114.** **Introduction to Financial Mathematics.** *****

Financial derivatives: contracts and options. Hedging and risk managment. Arbitrage, interest rate, and discounted value. Geometric random walk and Brownian motion as models of risky assets. Ito's formula. Initial boundary value problems for the heat and related partial differential equations. Self-financing replicating portfolio; Black-Scholes pricing of European options. Dividends. Implied volatility. American options as free boundary problems. Corequisite(s): Applied Mathematics and Statistics 131 or Computer Engineering 107. *The Staff*

**115.** **Graph Theory.** **S**

Graph theory, trees, vertex and edge colorings, Hamilton cycles, Eulerian circuits, decompositions into isomorphic subgraphs, extremal problems, cages, Ramsey theory, Cayley's spanning tree formula, planar graphs, Euler's formula, crossing numbers, thickness, splitting numbers, magic graphs, graceful trees, rotations, and genus of graphs. Prerequisite(s): course 21 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**116.** **Combinatorics.** *****

Based on induction and elementary counting techniques: counting subsets, partitions, and permutations; recurrence relations and generating functions; the principle of inclusion and exclusion; Polya enumeration; Ramsey theory or enumerative geometry. Prerequisite(s): course 100. Enrollment restricted to sophomores juniors, and seniors. Familiarity with basic group theory recommended. *The Staff*

**117.** **Advanced Linear Algebra.** **F,S**

Review of abstract vector spaces. Dual spaces, bilinear forms, and the associated geometry. Normal forms of linear mappings. Introduction to tensor products and exterior algebras. Prerequisite(s): course 21 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**118.** **Advanced Number Theory.** *****

Topics include divisibility and congruences, arithmetical functions, quadratic residues and quadratic reciprocity, quadratic forms and representations of numbers as sums of squares, Diophantine approximation and transcendence theory, quadratic fields. Additional topics as time permits. Prerequisite(s): course 110 or 111A. *The Staff*

**120.** **Coding Theory.** *****

An introduction to mathematical theory of coding. Construction and properties of various codes, such as cyclic, quadratic residue, linear, Hamming, and Golay codes; weight enumerators; connections with modern algebra and combinatorics. Prerequisite(s): course 21. *The Staff*

**121A.** **Differential Geometry.** **S**

Topics include Euclidean space, tangent vectors, directional derivatives, curves and differential forms in space, mappings. Curves, the Frenet formulas, covariant derivatives, frame fields, the structural equations. The classification of space curves up to rigid motions. Vector fields and differentiable forms on surfaces; the shape operator. Gaussian and mean curvature. The theorem Egregium; global classification of surfaces in three space by curvature. Prerequisite(s): courses 21 and 23B and either course 100 or Computer Science 101. Course 105A strongly recommended. *The Staff*

**121B.** **Differential Geometry and Topology.** *****

Examples of surfaces of constant curvature, surfaces of revolutions, minimal surfaces. Abstract manifolds; integration theory; Riemannian manifolds. Total curvature and geodesics; the Euler characteristic, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Length-minimizing properties of geodesics, complete surfaces, curvature and conjugate points covering surfaces. Surfaces of constant curvature; the theorems of Bonnet and Hadamard. Prerequisite(s): course 121A. *The Staff*

**124.** **Introduction to Topology.** **F**

Topics include introduction to point set topology (topological spaces, continuous maps, connectedness, compactness), homotopy relation, definition and calculation of fundamental groups and homology groups, Euler characteristic, classification of orientable and nonorientable surfaces, degree of maps, and Lefschetz fixed-point theorem. Prerequisite(s): course 100; course 111A recommended. *The Staff*

**128A.** **Classical Geometry: Euclidean and Non-Euclidean.** **F**

Rigorous foundations for Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. History of attempts to prove the parallel postulate and of the simultaneous discovery by Gauss, J. Bolyai, and Lobachevsky of hyperbolic geometry. Consistency proved by Euclidean models. Classification of rigid motions in both geometries. Prerequisite(s): either course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**128B.** **Classical Geometry: Projective.** *****

Theorems of Desargue, Pascal, and Pappus; projectivities; homogeneous and affine coordinates; conics; relation to perspective drawing and some history. Prerequisite(s): course 21. *The Staff*

**129.** **Algebraic Geometry.** *****

Algebraic geometry of affine and projective curves, including conics and elliptic curves; Bezout's theorem; coordinate rings and Hillbert's Nullstellensatz; affine and projective varieties; and regular and singular varieties. Other topics, such as blow-ups and algebraic surfaces as time permits. Prerequisite(s): courses 21 and 100. Enrollment limited to 40. *The Staff*

**130.** **Celestial Mechanics.** **W**

Solves the two-body (or Kepler) problem, then moves onto the N-body problem where there are many open problems. Includes central force laws; orbital elements; conservation of linear momentum, energy, and angular momentum; the Lagrange-Jacobi formula; Sundman's theorem for total collision; virial theorem; the three-body problem; Jacobi coordinates; solutions of Euler and of Lagrange; and restricted three-body problem. Prerequisite(s): courses 19A-B and course 23A or Physics 5A or 6A; courses 21 and 24 strongly recommended. Enrollment limited to 35. *The Staff*

**134.** **Cryptography.** **W**

Introduces different methods in cryptography (shift cipher, affine cipher, Vigenere cipher, Hill cipher, RSA cipher, ElGamal cipher, knapsack cipher). The necessary material from number theory and probability theory is developed in the course. Common methods to attack ciphers discussed. Prerequisite(s): course 100; course 110 recommended as preparation. *The Staff*

**140.** **Industrial Mathematics.** *****

Introduction to mathematical modeling of industrial problems. Problems in air quality remediation, image capture and reproduction, and crystallization are modeled as ordinary and partial differential equations then analyzed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Prerequisite(s): course 24 and either course 100 or Computer Science 101, and course 105A. *The Staff*

**145.** **Introductory Chaos Theory.** **S**

The Lorenz and Rossler attractors, measures of chaos, attractor reconstruction, and applications from the sciences. Students cannot receive credit for this course and Applied Mathematics and Statistics 114. Prerequisite(s): course 22 or 23A; course 21; course 100 or Computer Science 101. Concurrent enrollment in course 145L is required. *The Staff*

**145L.** **Introductory Chaos Laboratory** **(1 credit).** **S**

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 145. One three-hour session per week in microcomputer laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in course 145 is required. *The Staff*

**148.** **Numerical Analysis.** *****

The theory of constructive methods in mathematical analysis and its application with scientific computation. Some typical topics are difference equations, linear algebra, iteration, Bernoulli's method, quotient difference algorithm, the interpolating polynomial, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical solution of differential equations, finite Fourier series. Prerequisite(s): course 22 or 23A; course 21 and 24 or Applied Mathematics and Statistics 10 and 20; course 100 or Computer Science 101. Concurrent enrollment in course 148L is required. *The Staff*

**148L.** **Numerical Analysis Laboratory** **(1 credit).** *****

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 148. One three-hour session per week in microcomputer laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in course 148 is required. *The Staff*

**160.** **Mathematical Logic I.** *****

Propositional and predicate calculus. Resolution, completeness, compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem theorem. Recursive functions, Godel incompleteness theorem. Undecidable theories. Hilbert's 10th problem. Prerequisite(s): course 100 or Computer Science 101. *The Staff*

**161.** **Mathematical Logic II.** *****

Naive set theory and its limitations (Russell's paradox); construction of numbers as sets; cardinal and ordinal numbers; cardinal and ordinal arithmetic; transfinite induction; axiom systems for set theory, with particular emphasis on the axiom of choice and the regularity axiom and their consequences (such as, the Banach-Tarski paradox); continuum hypothesis. Prerequisite(s): course 100 or equivalent, or by permission of instructor. Enrollment limited to 45. *The Staff*

**181.** **History of Mathematics.** **W**

A survey from a historical point of view of various developments in mathematics. Specific topics and periods to vary yearly. Prerequisite(s): course 19B or 20B. Course 100 strongly recommended for preparation. (General Education Code(s): TA.) *The Staff*

**188.** **Supervised Teaching.** **F,W,S**

Supervised tutoring in self-paced courses. May not be repeated for credit. Students submit petition to sponsoring agency. (General Education Code(s): PR-S.) *The Staff*

**189.** **ACE Program Service Learning** **(2 credits).** **F**

Students participate in training and development to co-facilitate collaborative learning in ACE chemistry discussion sections and midterm/exam review sessions. Students are role models for students pursuing science- and math-intensive majors. Prerequisite(s): Prior participation in ACE; good academic standing; no non-passing grades in prior quarter. Enrollment restricted to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Enrollment limited to 10. (General Education Code(s): PR-S.) *The Staff*

**193A.** **Senior Seminar Education Track** **(3 credits).** *****

Designed for education-track mathematics majors. Students develop worksheets, present mathematical concepts, and write a final paper consisting of their reflections and learning outcome of both theory and practice in teaching of precalculus. Prerequisite(s): course 103A or 105A or 111A, and satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements. Enrollment priority is given to seniors. Enrollment limited to 25. *The Staff*

**193B.** **Senior Seminar Education Track** **(3 credits).** *****

For education-track, mathematics majors. Students develop worksheets, present mathematical concepts, and write a final paper consisting of their reflections and learning outcome of both theory and practice in the teaching of precalculus. Prerequisite(s): course 103 or 103A or 105A or 111A; and 193A; and satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements. Enrollment priority is given to seniors. Enrollment limited to 25. *The Staff*

**194.** **Senior Seminar.** **W,S**

Designed to expose the student to topics not normally covered in the standard courses. The format varies from year to year. In recent years each student has written a paper and presented a lecture on it to the class. Prerequisite(s): satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements; course 103 or 103A or 105A or 111A. Enrollment is priority given to seniors; juniors may request permission from the Undergraduate Vice Chair. *The Staff*

**195.** **Senior Thesis.** **F,W,S**

Students research a mathematical topic under the guidance of a faculty sponsor and write a senior thesis demonstrating knowledge of the material. Prerequisite(s): satisfaction of the Entry Level Writing and Composition requirements. Students submit petition to sponsoring agency. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**199.** **Tutorial.** **F,W,S**

Students submit petition to sponsoring agency. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

## Graduate Courses

**200.** **Algebra I.** **F**

Group theory: subgroups, cosets, normal subgroups, homomorphisms, isomorphisms, quotient groups, free groups, generators and relations, group actions on a set. Sylow theorems, semidirect products, simple groups, nilpotent groups, and solvable groups. Ring theory: Chinese remainder theorem, prime ideals, localization. Euclidean domains, PIDs, UFDs, polynomial rings. Prerequisite(s): courses 111A and 117 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**201.** **Algebra II.** **W**

Vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the Jordan canonical form, bilinear forms, quadratic forms, real symmetric forms and real symmetric matrices, orthogonal transformations and orthogonal matrices, Euclidean space, Hermitian forms and Hermitian matrices, Hermitian spaces, unitary transformations and unitary matrices, skewsymmetric forms, tensor products of vector spaces, tensor algebras, symmetric algebras, exterior algebras, Clifford algebras and spin groups. Prerequisite(s): Course 200 is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**202.** **Algebra III.** **S**

Module theory: Submodules, quotient modules, module homomorphisms, generators of modules, direct sums, free modules, torsion modules, modules over PIDs, and applications to rational and Jordan canonical forms. Field theory: field extensions, algebraic and transcendental extensions, splitting fields, algebraic closures, separable and normal extensions, the Galois theory, finite fields, Galois theory of polynomials. Prerequisite(s): Course 201 is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**203.** **Algebra IV.** **F**

Topics include tensor product of modules over rings, projective modules and injective modules, Jacobson radical, Wedderburns' theorem, category theory, Noetherian rings, Artinian rings, affine varieties, projective varieties, Hilbert's Nullstellensatz, prime spectrum, Zariski topology, discrete valuation rings, and Dedekind domains. Prerequisite(s): courses 200, 201, and 202. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**204.** **Analysis I.** **F**

Completeness and compactness for real line; sequences and infinite series of functions; Fourier series; calculus on Euclidean space and the implicit function theorem; metric spaces and the contracting mapping theorem; the Arzela-Ascoli theorem; basics of general topological spaces; the Baire category theorem; Urysohn's lemma; and Tychonoff's theorem. Prerequisite(s): courses105A and 105B are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**205.** **Analysis II.** **W**

Lebesgue measure theory, abstract measure theory, measurable functions, integration, space of absolutely integrable functions, dominated convergence theorem, convergence in measure, Riesz representation theorem, product measure and Fubini 's theorem. Lp spaces, derivative of a measure, the Radon-Nikodym theorem, and the fundamental theorem of calculus. Prerequisite(s): course 204. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**206.** **Analysis III.** **S**

Banach spaces, Hahn-Banach theorem, uniform boundedness theorem, the open mapping and closed graph theorems, weak and weak* topology, the Banach-Alaoglu theorem, Hilbert spaces, self-adjoint operators, compact operators, spectral theory, Fredholm operators, spaces of distributions and the Fourier transform, and Sobolev spaces. Prerequisite(s): Courses 204 and 205 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**207.** **Complex Analysis.** **S**

Holomorphic and harmonic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, the maximum principle and its consequences, conformal mapping, analytic continuation, the Riemann mapping theorem. Prerequisite(s): Course 103 is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**208.** **Manifolds I.** **F**

Definition of manifolds; the tangent bundle; the inverse function theorem and the implicit function theorem; transversality; Sard's theorem and the Whitney embedding theorem; vector fields, flows, and the Lie bracket; Frobenius's theorem. Course 204 recommended for preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**209.** **Manifolds II.** **W**

Tensor algebra. Differential forms and associated formalism of pullback, wedge product, exterior derivative, Stokes theorem, integration. Cartan's formula for Lie derivative. Cohomology via differential forms. The Poincaré lemma and the Mayer-Vietoris sequence. Theorems of deRham and Hodge. Prerequisite(s): course 208. Course 201 is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**210.** **Manifolds III.** **S**

The fundamental group, covering space theory and van Kampen's theorem (with a discussion of free and amalgamated products of groups), CW complexes, higher homotopy groups, cellular and singular cohomology, the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, computational tools including Mayer-Vietoris, cup products, Poincaré duality, the Lefschetz fixed point theorem, the exact homotopy sequence of a fibration and the Hurewicz isomorphism theorem, and remarks on characteristic classes. Prerequisite(s): Courses 208 and 209 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**211.** **Algebraic Topology.** **F**

Continuation of course 210. Topics include theory of characteristic classes of vector bundles, cobordism theory, and homotopy theory. Prerequisite(s): Courses 200, 201, and 202 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**212.** **Differential Geometry.** **W**

Principal bundles, associated bundles and vector bundles, connections and curvature on principal and vector bundles. More advanced topics include: introduction to cohomology, the Chern-Weil construction and characteristic classes, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem or Hodge theory, eigenvalue estimates for Beltrami Laplacian, and comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry. Prerequisite(s): course 208. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**213A.** **Partial Differential Equations I.** **W**

First of the two PDE courses covering basically Part I in Evans' book; *Partial Differential Equations;* which includes transport equations; Laplace equations; heat equations; wave equations; characteristics of nonlinear first-order PDE; Hamilton-Jacobi equations; conservation laws; some methods for solving equations in closed form; and the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem. Courses 106 and 107 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**213B.** **Partial Differential Equations II.** *****

Second course of the PDE series covering basically most of Part II in Evans' book and some topics in nonlinear PDE including Sobolev spaces, Sobolev inequalities, existence, regularity and a priori estimates of solutions to second order elliptic PDE, parabolic equations, hyperbolic equations and systems of conservation laws, and calculus of variations and its applications to PDE. Prerequisite(s): Courses 106, 107, and 213A are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**214.** **Theory of Finite Groups.** *****

Nilpotent groups, solvable groups, Hall subgroups, the Frattini subgroup, the Fitting subgroup, the Schur-Zassenhaus theorem, fusion in p-subgroups, the transfer map, Frobenius theorem on normal p-complements. Prerequisite(s): Courses 200 and 201 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**215.** **Operator Theory.** *****

Operators on Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces. The spectral theorem. Compact and Fredholm operators. Other special classes of operators. Prerequisite(s): Courses 204, 205, 206, and 207 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**216.** **Advanced Analysis.** *****

Topics include: the Lebesgue set, the Marcinkiewicz interpolation theorem, singular integrals, the Calderon-Zygmund theorem, Hardy Littlewood-Sobolev theorem, pseudodifferential operators, compensated compactness, concentration compactness, and applications to PDE. Prerequisite(s): Courses 204, 205, and 206 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**217.** **Advanced Elliptic Partial Differential Equations.** *****

Topics include elliptic equations, existence of weak solutions, the Lax-Milgram theorem, interior and boundary regularity, maximum principles, the Harnack inequality, eigenvalues for symmetric and non-symmetric elliptic operators, calculus of variations (first variation: Euler-Lagrange equations, second variation: existence of minimizers). Other topics covered as time permits. Prerequisite(s): Courses 204, 205, and 206 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**218.** **Advanced Parabolic and Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations.** *****

Topics include: linear evolution equations, second order parabolic equations, maximum principles, second order hyperbolic equations, propagation of singularities, hyperbolic systems of first order, semigroup theory, systems of conservation laws, Riemann problem, simple waves, rarefaction waves, shock waves, Riemann invariants, and entropy criteria. Other topics covered as time permits. Prerequisite(s): courses 205 and 206. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**219.** **Nonlinear Functional Analysis.** *****

Topological methods in nonlinear partial differential equations, including degree theory, bifurcation theory, and monotonicity. Topics also include variational methods in the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**220A.** **Representation Theory I.** *****

Lie groups and Lie algebras, and their finite dimensional representations. Prerequisite(s): courses 200, 201, and 202. Courses 225A and 227 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**220B.** **Representation Theory II.** *****

Lie groups and Lie algebras, and their finite dimensional representations. Prerequisite(s): course 220A. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**222A.** **Algebraic Number Theory.** **W**

Topics include algebraic integers, completions, different and discriminant, cyclotomic fields, parallelotopes, the ideal function, ideles and adeles, elementary properties of zeta functions and L-series, local class field theory, global class field theory. Courses 200, 201, and 202 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**222B.** **Algebraic Number Theory.** *****

Topics include geometric methods in number theory, finiteness theorems, analogues of Riemann-Roch for algebraic fields (after A. Weil), inverse Galois problem (Belyi theorem) and consequences. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**223A.** **Algebraic Geometry I.** **F**

Topics include examples of algebraic varieties, elements of commutative algebra, local properties of algebraic varieties, line bundles and sheaf cohomology, theory of algebraic curves. Weekly problem solving. Courses 200, 201, 202, and 208 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**223B.** **Algebraic Geometry II.** **W**

A continuation of course 223A. Topics include theory of schemes and sheaf cohomology, formulation of the Riemann-Roch theorem, birational maps, theory of surfaces. Weekly problem solving. Course 223A is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**225A.** **Lie Algebras.** **F**

Basic concepts of Lie algebras. Engel's theorem, Lie's theorem, Weyl's theorem are proved. Root space decomposition for semi-simple algebras, root systems and the classification theorem for semi-simple algebras over the complex numbers. Isomorphism and conjugacy theorems. Prerequisite(s): Courses 201 and 202 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**225B.** **Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras.** *****

Finite dimensional semi-simple Lie algebras: PBW theorem, generators and relations, highest weight representations, Weyl character formula. Infinite dimensional Lie algebras: Heisenberg algebras, Virasoro algebras, loop algebras, affine Kac-Moody algebras, vertex operator representations. Prerequisite(s): course 225A. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**226A.** **Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras and Quantum Field Theory I.** *****

Introduction to the infinite-dimensional Lie algebras that arise in modern mathematics and mathematical physics: Heisenberg and Virasoro algebras, representations of the Heisenberg algebra, Verma modules over the Virasoro algebra, the Kac determinant formula, and unitary and discrete series representations. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**226B.** **Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras and Quantum Field Theory II.** *****

Continuation of course 226A: Kac-Moody and affine Lie algebras and their representations, integrable modules, representations via vertex operators, modular invariance of characters, and introduction to vertex operator algebras. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**227.** **Lie Groups.** **W**

Lie groups and algebras, the exponential map, the adjoint action, Lie's three theorems, Lie subgroups, the maximal torus theorem, the Weyl group, some topology of Lie groups, some representation theory: Schur's Lemma, the Peter-Weyl theorem, roots, weights, classification of Lie groups, the classical groups. Prerequisite(s): courses 200, 201, 204, and 208. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**228.** **Lie Incidence Geometries.** *****

Linear incidence geometry is introduced. Linear and classical groups are reviewed, and geometries associated with projective and polar spaces are introduced. Characterizations are obtained. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**229.** **Kac-Moody Algebras.** *****

Theory of Kac-Moody algebras and their representations. The Weil-Kac character formula. Emphasis on representations of affine superalgebras by vertex operators. Connections to combinatorics, PDE, the monster group. The Virasoro algebra. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**232.** **Morse Theory.** *****

Classical Morse Theory. The fundamental theorems relating critical points to the topology of a manifold are treated in detail. The Bott Periodicity Theorem. A specialized course offered once every few years. Prerequisite(s): Courses 208, 209, 210, 211, and 212 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**233.** **Random Matrix Theory.** *****

Classical matrix ensembles; Wigner semi-circle law; method of moments. Gaussian ensembles. Method of orthogonal polynomials; Gaudin lemma. Distribution functions for spacings and largest eigenvalue. Asymptotics and Riemann-Hilbert problem. Painleve theory and the Tracy-Widom distribution. Selberg's Integral. Matrix ensembles related to classical groups; symmetric functions theory. Averages of characteristic polynomials. Fundamentals of free probability theory. Overview of connections with physics, combinatorics, and number theory. Prerequisite(s): courses 103, 204, and 205; course 117 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**234.** **Riemann Surfaces.** *****

Riemann surfaces, conformal maps, harmonic forms, holomorphic forms, the Reimann-Roch theorem, the theory of moduli. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**235.** **Dynamical Systems Theory.** *****

An introduction to the qualitative theory of systems of ordinary differential equations. Structural stability, critical elements, stable manifolds, generic properties, bifurcations of generic arcs. Prerequisite(s): courses 203 and 208. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**238.** **Elliptic Functions and Modular Forms.** **S**

The course, aimed at second-year graduate students, will cover the basic facts about elliptic functions and modular forms. The goal is to provide the student with foundations suitable for further work in advanced number theory, in conformal field theory, and in the theory of Riemann surfaces. Prerequisite(s): courses 200, 201, 202, and either 207 or 103A are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**239.** **Homological Algebra.** **S**

Homology and cohomology theories have proven to be powerful tools in many fields (topology, geometry, number theory, algebra). Independent of the field, these theories use the common language of homological algebra. The aim of this course is to acquaint the participants with basic concepts of category theory and homological algebra, as follows: chain complexes, homology, homotopy, several (co)homology theories (topological spaces, manifolds, groups, algebras, Lie groups), projective and injective resolutions, derived functors (Ext and Tor). Depending on time, spectral sequences or derived categories may also be treated. Courses 200 and 202 strongly recommended. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**240A.** **Representations of Finite Groups I.** *****

Introduces ordinary representation theory of finite groups (over the complex numbers). Main topics are characters, orthogonality relations, character tables, induction and restriction, Frobenius reciprocity, Mackey's formula, Clifford theory, Schur indicator, Schur index, Artin's and Braver's induction theorems. Recommended: successful completion of courses 200-202. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**240B.** **Representations of Finite Groups II.** **W**

Introduces modular representation theory of finite groups (over a field of positive characteristic). Main topics are Grothendieck groups, Brauer characters, Brauer character table, projective covers, Brauer-Cartan triangle, relative projectivity, vertices, sources, Green correspondence, Green's indecomposability theorem. Recommended completion of courses 200-203 and 240A. Prerequisite(s): Courses 200, 201, 202, 203, and 240A recommended. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**246.** **Representations of Algebras.** *****

Material includes associative algebras and their modules; projective and injective modules; projective covers; injective hulls; Krull-Schmidt Theorem; Cartan matrix; semisimple algebras and modules; radical, simple algebras; symmetric algebras; quivers and their representations; Morita Theory; and basic algebras. Prerequisite(s): courses 200, 201, and 202. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**248.** **Symplectic Geometry.** **F**

Basic definitions. Darboux theorem. Basic examples: cotangent bundles, Kähler manifolds and co-adjoint orbits. Normal form theorems. Hamiltonian group actions, moment maps. Reduction by symmetry groups. Atiyah-Guillemin-Sternberg convexity. Introduction to Floer homological methods. Relations with other geometries including contact, Poisson, and Kähler geometry. Prerequisite(s): course 204; courses 208 and 209 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**249A.** **Mechanics I.** *****

Covers symplectic geometry and classical Hamiltonian dynamics. Some of the key subjects are the Darboux theorem, Poisson brackets, Hamiltonian and Langrangian systems, Legendre transformations, variational principles, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, godesic equations, and an introduction to Poisson geometry. Courses 208 and 209 are recommended as preparation. Courses 208 and 209 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**249B.** **Mechanics II.** *****

Hamiltonian dynamics with symmetry. Key topics center around the momentum map and the theory of reduction in both the symplectic and Poisson context. Applications are taken from geometry, rigid body dynamics, and continuum mechanics. Course 249A is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**249C.** **Mechanics III.** *****

Introduces students to active research topics tailored according to the interests of the students. Possible subjects are complete integrability and Kac-Moody Lie algebras; Smale's topological program and bifurcation theory; KAM theory, stability and chaos; relativity; quantization. Course 249B is recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. Offered in alternate academic years. *The Staff*

**252.** **Fluid Mechanics.** *****

First covers a basic introduction to fluid dynamics equations and then focuses on different aspects of the solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Prerequisite(s): courses 106 and 107 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**254.** **Geometric Analysis.** *****

Introduction to some basics in geometric analysis through the discussions of two fundamental problems in geometry: the resolution of the Yamabe problem and the study of harmonic maps. The analytic aspects of these problems include Sobolev spaces, best constants in Sobolev inequalities, and regularity and a priori estimates of systems of elliptic PDE. Courses 204, 205, 209, 212, and 213 recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**256.** **Algebraic Curves.** *****

Introduction to compact Riemann surfaces and algebraic geometry via an in-depth study of complex algebraic curves. Courses 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, and 207 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate mathematics and physics students. *The Staff*

**260.** **Combinatorics.** *****

Combinatorial mathematics, including summation methods, binomial coefficients, combinatorial sequences (Fibonacci, Stirling, Eulerian, harmonic, Bernoulli numbers), generating functions and their uses, Bernoulli processes and other topics in discrete probability. Oriented toward problem solving applications. Applications to statistical physics and computer science. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**280.** **Topics in Analysis.** *****

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**281.** **Topics in Algebra.** *****

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**282.** **Topics in Geometry.** *****

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**283.** **Topics in Combinatorial Theory.** *****

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**284.** **Topics in Dynamics.** *****

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**285.** **Topics in Partial Differential Equations.** *****

Topics such as derivation of the Navier-Stokes equations. Examples of flows including water waves, vortex motion, and boundary layers. Introductory functional analysis of the Navier-Stokes equation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**286.** **Topics in Number Theory.** *****

Topics in number theory, selected by instructor. Possibilities include modular and automorphic forms, elliptic curves, algebraic number theory, local fields, the trace formula. May also cover related areas of arithmetic algebraic geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. Courses 200, 201, 202, and 205 are recommended as preparation. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**287.** **Topics in Topology.** *****

Topics in topology, selected by the instructor. Possibilities include generalized (co)homology theory including K-theory, group actions on manifolds, equivariant and orbifold cohomology theory. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. May be repeated for credit. *The Staff*

**292.** **Seminar** **(no credit).** **F,W,S**

A weekly seminar attended by faculty, graduate students, and upper-division undergraduate students. All graduate students are expected to attend. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**296.** **Special Student Seminar.** **F,W,S**

Students and staff studying in an area where there is no specific course offering at that time. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**297.** **Independent Study.** **F,W,S**

Either study related to a course being taken or a totally independent study. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**298.** **Master's Thesis Research.** **F,W,S**

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

**299.** **Thesis Research.** **F,W,S**

Enrollment restricted to graduate students. *The Staff*

Revised: 09/01/16